Observation of scale invariance in two-dimensional matter-wave Townes solitons
Authors: Cheng-An Chen, Chen-Lung Hung
Journal Ref: arXiv:2103.03156; Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 023604 (2021).
We report near-deterministic generation of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave Townes solitons, and a precision test on scale invariance in attractive 2D Boses gases. We induce a shape-controlled modulational instability in an elongated 2D matter-wave to create an array of isolated solitary waves of various sizes and peak densities. We confirm scale invariance by observing the collapse of solitary-wave density profiles onto a single curve in a dimensionless coordinate rescaled according to their peak densities, and observe that the scale-invariant profiles measured at different coupling constants g can further collapse onto the universal profile of Townes solitons. The reported scaling behavior is tested with a nearly 60-fold difference in soliton interaction energies, and allows us to discuss the impact of a non-negligible magnetic dipole-dipole interaction (MDDI) on 2D scale invariance. We confirm that the effect of MDDI in our alkali cesium quasi-2D samples effectively conforms to the same scaling law governed by a contact interaction to well within our experiment uncertainty.