Realization of efficient 3D tapered waveguide-to-fiber couplers on a nanophotonic circuit
Authors: Tzu-Han Chang, Xinchao Zhou, Hikaru Tamura, and Chen-Lung Hung
Journal Ref: Opt. Express 30, 31643-31652 (2022)
We report the realization of efficiently coupled 3D tapered waveguide-to-fiber couplers (TWCs) based on standard lithography techniques. The 3D TWC design is capable of achieving highly efficient flat-cleaved fiber to silicon nitride photonic waveguide coupling, with T ≈ 95 % polarization-insensitive coupling efficiency, wide bandwidth, and good misalignment tolerance. Our fabricated 3D TWCs on a functional nanophotonic circuit achieve T ≈ 85% coupling efficiency. Beyond applications in high-efficiency photon coupling, the demonstrated 3D lithography technique provides a complementary approach for mode field shaping and effective refractive index engineering, potentially useful for general applications in integrated photonic circuits.